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The Spanish Grammar, by Miguel
New Edition

  The Nouns
  The Adjectives
  The Time
  The Date
  The Pronouns
  Direct/Indirect Pronouns
  Demonstrative Pronouns
  Relative Pronous
  Reflexive pronouns
  Possessive Pronouns
  The Adverbs
  Degree of Adverbs
  Regular Verbs
  Irregular Verbs
  Stem-Changing Verbs
  The Progressive


Accents in Spanish

If word ends in -n -s or a vowel, the stress falls on next-to-last syllabus.

If you remember that these - está, están, estás - are exceptions, than you remember the rule.

Words with all the other endings have an accent on the last syllabus.

Question and exclamation words - comó, dónde, qué - always have accents.

Demonstrative pronouns have an accent as opposed to demonstrative adjectives.
éste -- este libro, éstas -- estas blusas

Certain words change their meaning when written with an accent.

cómo how como like
dé give de of, from
él he/him el the
más more mas but
mí me mi my
sé I know se 3rd person pronoun
sí yes si if
sólo only solo alone
té tea te you
tú you tu your

Gender in Spanish

Referring to males and/or ending in -o hombre, libro

Referring to females and/or ending in -a -ción -tad -dad mujer, mesa, nación, libertad, universidad

Ones referring neither to males or females
and having different endings can be of either gender el lápiz, la clase, la tarde, la noche

Many nouns change gender by changing the last vowel or by adding -a to the last consonant el compañero, la compañera, un profesor, la profesora

Many nouns have the same form and differ only by the article el estudiante, la estudiante

Some nouns ending in -e change gender by changing it to -a el presidente, la presidenta

Remberber: El día and El problema are MASCULINE.

Many words ending in -ma are MASCULINE el problema, el sistema, el programa

Forming plural in Spanish

ending in vowel vowel + s el/un libro
la/una mesa los/unos libros
las/unas mesas

ending in consonant consonant + es un papel
la universidad unos papeles
las universidades

ending in consonant z z -> ces el lapiz los lapices
to refer to a group consisting of both
males and females masculine plural is used . el amigo
la amiga los amigos

Somo sound spellings

Hard C sound ca que qui co cu sacar, saque
S/Z sound za ce ci zo zu cazar, cace
Hard G sound ga gue gui go gu pagar, pague
Soft G sound ja ge gi jo ju elija, elegir

As you see, two vowels -- e and i -- are exceptional.
To remember them, remember two words -- que and quien.

Typing accents

á alt 160 alt 0225 ctrl ', a
é alt 130 alt 0233 ctrl ', e
í alt 161 alt 0237 ctrl ', i
ó alt162 alt 0243 ctrl ', o
ú alt 163 alt 0250 ctrl ', u
ñ alt 164 alt 0241 shift + ctrl+~, n
Á alt 0193 ctrl ', A
É alt 144 alt 0201 ctrl ', E
Í alt 0205 ctrl ', I
Ó alt 0211 ctrl ', O
Ú alt 0218 ctrl ', U
Ñ alt 165 alt 0209 shift + ctrl+~, N
¿ alt 168 alt 0191 alt+shift + ctrl + ?
¡ alt 173 alt 0161 alt+shift + ctrl + !
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