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The Spanish Grammar, by Miguel
New Edition

  The Nouns
  The Adjectives
  The Time
  The Date
  The Pronouns
  Direct/Indirect Pronouns
  Demonstrative Pronouns
  Relative Pronous
  Reflexive pronouns
  Possessive Pronouns
  The Adverbs
  Degree of Adverbs
  Regular Verbs
  Irregular Verbs
  Stem-Changing Verbs
  The Progressive



Normally, if a noun ends in -o is masculine and if ends in -a is feminine. There is exceptions to this rule.

Feminine nouns such as agua noun with a stressed , are preceded by the masculine el to avoid the ackward sound of la ... a.

If a noun ends in -ie, -ad, and -ud is always feminine.

La verdad/the truth.
La plenitud/the fullness.
La serie/the serie.

Nouns ending in -ción , -sión and -umbre are always feminine.

La ilusión/the illusion.
La cumbre/the peak.
La misión/the mission .

Are feminine the letters of the alphabet and sicknesses.

La eme (m).
La fiebre/the fever.

Nouns to persons and animals can be masculine or feminine.

El padre/the father.
La madre/the mother.

Usually, in Spanish nouns referring to a person's profession do not change according to gender.

El cantante (male), la cantante (female) - cantante/singer.

Many Spanish students make mistakes with words ending in -ma. Some of that names are masculine.

El problema/the problem.
El tema/the subject.

There are some rules to form the plural of nouns depending on the ending of the noun:

- -inarey/kingreína/queen
- -esaalcalde/mayoralcaldesa/mayor
- -isapitón pythonpitonisa she-python

The construction of the plural of a noun is formed by adding either -s or -es to it.

Add -s to nouns ending in a vowel to form the plural. Add -es to nounes ending in a consonant to form the plural.

coche - coches / car - cars.
casa - casas / house - houses.
niño - niños / boy - boys.
tren - trenes / train -trains.

If the word ends in -z, change the -z to -c and add -es.

El lápiz - los lápices / the pencil - the pencils.

The masculine plural form of Spanish nouns normally include the female members into the group.

Los padres (meaning the father/s and the mother/s).

This are the Spanish Suffixes and their equivalents in English.

Spanish English 
-ciónacción, preparación-tionnation, preparation
-sióntensión, expresión-siontension, expression
-dadvitalidad, ciudad-tyvitality, city
-osofamoso, riguroso-ousfamous, rigorous
-íafilosofía, teoría-yphilosophy, theory
-ismocomunismo, racismo-ismcommunism, racism
-istaartista, optimista-istartist, optimist
-ordirector, constructor-er, -oradirector, builder
-ante, -enteinteresante, inteligente-ant, -ent, -inginteresting, intelligent
-uraliteratura, figura-ureliterature, figure
-itogatito, casita-small cat, small house
-ísimomuchísimo, grandísima-a whole lot, really big

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